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util.c

/* 
   Unix SMB/CIFS implementation.
   Samba utility functions

   Copyright (C) Andrew Tridgell 2004
   Copyright (C) Volker Lendecke 2004
   Copyright (C) Andrew Bartlett <abartlet@samba.org> 2006
   Copyright (C) Jelmer Vernooij <jelmer@samba.org> 2007

   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
   the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or
   (at your option) any later version.

   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
   GNU General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
   along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/

#include "includes.h"
#include "events/events.h"
#include "ldb.h"
#include "ldb_module.h"
#include "ldb_errors.h"
#include "../lib/util/util_ldb.h"
#include "../lib/crypto/crypto.h"
#include "dsdb/samdb/samdb.h"
#include "libcli/security/security.h"
#include "librpc/gen_ndr/ndr_security.h"
#include "librpc/gen_ndr/ndr_misc.h"
#include "../libds/common/flags.h"
#include "dsdb/common/proto.h"
#include "libcli/ldap/ldap_ndr.h"
#include "param/param.h"
#include "libcli/auth/libcli_auth.h"
#include "librpc/gen_ndr/ndr_drsblobs.h"
#include "system/locale.h"
#include "lib/util/tsort.h"
#include "dsdb/common/util.h"
#include "lib/socket/socket.h"
#include "dsdb/samdb/ldb_modules/util.h"

/*
  search the sam for the specified attributes in a specific domain, filter on
  objectSid being in domain_sid.
*/
int samdb_search_domain(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                  TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, 
                  struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                  struct ldb_message ***res,
                  const char * const *attrs,
                  const struct dom_sid *domain_sid,
                  const char *format, ...)  _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(7,8)
{
      va_list ap;
      int i, count;

      va_start(ap, format);
      count = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn,
                         res, attrs, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);

      i=0;

      while (i<count) {
            struct dom_sid *entry_sid;

            entry_sid = samdb_result_dom_sid(mem_ctx, (*res)[i], "objectSid");

            if ((entry_sid == NULL) ||
                (!dom_sid_in_domain(domain_sid, entry_sid))) {
                  /* Delete that entry from the result set */
                  (*res)[i] = (*res)[count-1];
                  count -= 1;
                  talloc_free(entry_sid);
                  continue;
            }
            talloc_free(entry_sid);
            i += 1;
      }

      return count;
}

/*
  search the sam for a single string attribute in exactly 1 record
*/
const char *samdb_search_string_v(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                          TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                          struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                          const char *attr_name,
                          const char *format, va_list ap) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(5,0)
{
      int count;
      const char *attrs[2] = { NULL, NULL };
      struct ldb_message **res = NULL;

      attrs[0] = attr_name;

      count = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn, &res, attrs, format, ap);
      if (count > 1) {        
            DEBUG(1,("samdb: search for %s %s not single valued (count=%d)\n", 
                   attr_name, format, count));
      }
      if (count != 1) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return NULL;
      }

      return samdb_result_string(res[0], attr_name, NULL);
}

/*
  search the sam for a single string attribute in exactly 1 record
*/
const char *samdb_search_string(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                        TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                        struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                        const char *attr_name,
                        const char *format, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(5,6)
{
      va_list ap;
      const char *str;

      va_start(ap, format);
      str = samdb_search_string_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn, attr_name, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);

      return str;
}

struct ldb_dn *samdb_search_dn(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                         TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                         struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                         const char *format, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(4,5)
{
      va_list ap;
      struct ldb_dn *ret;
      struct ldb_message **res = NULL;
      int count;

      va_start(ap, format);
      count = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn, &res, NULL, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);

      if (count != 1) return NULL;

      ret = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, res[0]->dn);
      talloc_free(res);

      return ret;
}

/*
  search the sam for a dom_sid attribute in exactly 1 record
*/
struct dom_sid *samdb_search_dom_sid(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                             TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                             struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                             const char *attr_name,
                             const char *format, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(5,6)
{
      va_list ap;
      int count;
      struct ldb_message **res;
      const char *attrs[2] = { NULL, NULL };
      struct dom_sid *sid;

      attrs[0] = attr_name;

      va_start(ap, format);
      count = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn, &res, attrs, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);
      if (count > 1) {        
            DEBUG(1,("samdb: search for %s %s not single valued (count=%d)\n", 
                   attr_name, format, count));
      }
      if (count != 1) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return NULL;
      }
      sid = samdb_result_dom_sid(mem_ctx, res[0], attr_name);
      talloc_free(res);
      return sid; 
}

/*
  return the count of the number of records in the sam matching the query
*/
int samdb_search_count(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                   struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                   const char *format, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(3,4)
{
      va_list ap;
      struct ldb_message **res;
      const char *attrs[] = { NULL };
      int ret;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(sam_ldb);

      va_start(ap, format);
      ret = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, tmp_ctx, basedn, &res, attrs, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return ret;
}


/*
  search the sam for a single integer attribute in exactly 1 record
*/
unsigned int samdb_search_uint(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                   TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                   unsigned int default_value,
                   struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                   const char *attr_name,
                   const char *format, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(6,7)
{
      va_list ap;
      int count;
      struct ldb_message **res;
      const char *attrs[2] = { NULL, NULL };

      attrs[0] = attr_name;

      va_start(ap, format);
      count = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn, &res, attrs, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);

      if (count != 1) {
            return default_value;
      }

      return samdb_result_uint(res[0], attr_name, default_value);
}

/*
  search the sam for a single signed 64 bit integer attribute in exactly 1 record
*/
int64_t samdb_search_int64(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                     TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                     int64_t default_value,
                     struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                     const char *attr_name,
                     const char *format, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(6,7)
{
      va_list ap;
      int count;
      struct ldb_message **res;
      const char *attrs[2] = { NULL, NULL };

      attrs[0] = attr_name;

      va_start(ap, format);
      count = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn, &res, attrs, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);

      if (count != 1) {
            return default_value;
      }

      return samdb_result_int64(res[0], attr_name, default_value);
}

/*
  search the sam for multipe records each giving a single string attribute
  return the number of matches, or -1 on error
*/
int samdb_search_string_multiple(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                         TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                         struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                         const char ***strs,
                         const char *attr_name,
                         const char *format, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(6,7)
{
      va_list ap;
      int count, i;
      const char *attrs[2] = { NULL, NULL };
      struct ldb_message **res = NULL;

      attrs[0] = attr_name;

      va_start(ap, format);
      count = gendb_search_v(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, basedn, &res, attrs, format, ap);
      va_end(ap);

      if (count <= 0) {
            return count;
      }

      /* make sure its single valued */
      for (i=0;i<count;i++) {
            if (res[i]->num_elements != 1) {
                  DEBUG(1,("samdb: search for %s %s not single valued\n", 
                         attr_name, format));
                  talloc_free(res);
                  return -1;
            }
      }

      *strs = talloc_array(mem_ctx, const char *, count+1);
      if (! *strs) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return -1;
      }

      for (i=0;i<count;i++) {
            (*strs)[i] = samdb_result_string(res[i], attr_name, NULL);
      }
      (*strs)[count] = NULL;

      return count;
}

/*
  pull a uint from a result set. 
*/
unsigned int samdb_result_uint(const struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr, unsigned int default_value)
{
      return ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint(msg, attr, default_value);
}

/*
  pull a (signed) int64 from a result set. 
*/
int64_t samdb_result_int64(const struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr, int64_t default_value)
{
      return ldb_msg_find_attr_as_int64(msg, attr, default_value);
}

/*
  pull a string from a result set. 
*/
const char *samdb_result_string(const struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr, 
                        const char *default_value)
{
      return ldb_msg_find_attr_as_string(msg, attr, default_value);
}

struct ldb_dn *samdb_result_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const struct ldb_message *msg,
                         const char *attr, struct ldb_dn *default_value)
{
      struct ldb_dn *ret_dn = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr);
      if (!ret_dn) {
            return default_value;
      }
      return ret_dn;
}

/*
  pull a rid from a objectSid in a result set. 
*/
uint32_t samdb_result_rid_from_sid(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const struct ldb_message *msg, 
                           const char *attr, uint32_t default_value)
{
      struct dom_sid *sid;
      uint32_t rid;

      sid = samdb_result_dom_sid(mem_ctx, msg, attr);
      if (sid == NULL) {
            return default_value;
      }
      rid = sid->sub_auths[sid->num_auths-1];
      talloc_free(sid);
      return rid;
}

/*
  pull a dom_sid structure from a objectSid in a result set. 
*/
struct dom_sid *samdb_result_dom_sid(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const struct ldb_message *msg, 
                             const char *attr)
{
      const struct ldb_val *v;
      struct dom_sid *sid;
      enum ndr_err_code ndr_err;
      v = ldb_msg_find_ldb_val(msg, attr);
      if (v == NULL) {
            return NULL;
      }
      sid = talloc(mem_ctx, struct dom_sid);
      if (sid == NULL) {
            return NULL;
      }
      ndr_err = ndr_pull_struct_blob(v, sid, sid,
                               (ndr_pull_flags_fn_t)ndr_pull_dom_sid);
      if (!NDR_ERR_CODE_IS_SUCCESS(ndr_err)) {
            talloc_free(sid);
            return NULL;
      }
      return sid;
}

/*
  pull a guid structure from a objectGUID in a result set. 
*/
struct GUID samdb_result_guid(const struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr)
{
      const struct ldb_val *v;
      struct GUID guid;
      NTSTATUS status;

      v = ldb_msg_find_ldb_val(msg, attr);
      if (!v) return GUID_zero();

      status = GUID_from_ndr_blob(v, &guid);
      if (!NT_STATUS_IS_OK(status)) {
            return GUID_zero();
      }

      return guid;
}

/*
  pull a sid prefix from a objectSid in a result set. 
  this is used to find the domain sid for a user
*/
struct dom_sid *samdb_result_sid_prefix(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const struct ldb_message *msg, 
                              const char *attr)
{
      struct dom_sid *sid = samdb_result_dom_sid(mem_ctx, msg, attr);
      if (!sid || sid->num_auths < 1) return NULL;
      sid->num_auths--;
      return sid;
}

/*
  pull a NTTIME in a result set. 
*/
NTTIME samdb_result_nttime(const struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr,
                     NTTIME default_value)
{
      return ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint64(msg, attr, default_value);
}

/*
 * Windows stores 0 for lastLogoff.
 * But when a MS DC return the lastLogoff (as Logoff Time)
 * it returns 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, not returning this value in this case
 * cause windows 2008 and newer version to fail for SMB requests
 */
NTTIME samdb_result_last_logoff(const struct ldb_message *msg)
{
      NTTIME ret = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint64(msg, "lastLogoff",0);

      if (ret == 0)
            ret = 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFULL;

      return ret;
}

/*
 * Windows uses both 0 and 9223372036854775807 (0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFULL) to
 * indicate an account doesn't expire.
 *
 * When Windows initially creates an account, it sets
 * accountExpires = 9223372036854775807 (0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF).  However,
 * when changing from an account having a specific expiration date to
 * that account never expiring, it sets accountExpires = 0.
 *
 * Consolidate that logic here to allow clearer logic for account expiry in
 * the rest of the code.
 */
NTTIME samdb_result_account_expires(const struct ldb_message *msg)
{
      NTTIME ret = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint64(msg, "accountExpires",
                                     0);

      if (ret == 0)
            ret = 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFULL;

      return ret;
}

/*
  pull a uint64_t from a result set. 
*/
uint64_t samdb_result_uint64(const struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr,
                       uint64_t default_value)
{
      return ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint64(msg, attr, default_value);
}


/*
  construct the allow_password_change field from the PwdLastSet attribute and the 
  domain password settings
*/
NTTIME samdb_result_allow_password_change(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, 
                                TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, 
                                struct ldb_dn *domain_dn, 
                                struct ldb_message *msg, 
                                const char *attr)
{
      uint64_t attr_time = samdb_result_uint64(msg, attr, 0);
      int64_t minPwdAge;

      if (attr_time == 0) {
            return 0;
      }

      minPwdAge = samdb_search_int64(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, 0, domain_dn, "minPwdAge", NULL);

      /* yes, this is a -= not a += as minPwdAge is stored as the negative
         of the number of 100-nano-seconds */
      attr_time -= minPwdAge;

      return attr_time;
}

/*
  construct the force_password_change field from the PwdLastSet
  attribute, the userAccountControl and the domain password settings
*/
NTTIME samdb_result_force_password_change(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, 
                                TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, 
                                struct ldb_dn *domain_dn, 
                                struct ldb_message *msg)
{
      int64_t attr_time = samdb_result_int64(msg, "pwdLastSet", 0);
      uint32_t userAccountControl = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint(msg,
                                                "userAccountControl",
                                                0);
      int64_t maxPwdAge;

      /* Machine accounts don't expire, and there is a flag for 'no expiry' */
      if (!(userAccountControl & UF_NORMAL_ACCOUNT)
          || (userAccountControl & UF_DONT_EXPIRE_PASSWD)) {
            return 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFULL;
      }

      if (attr_time == 0) {
            return 0;
      }
      if (attr_time == -1) {
            return 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFULL;
      }

      maxPwdAge = samdb_search_int64(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, 0, domain_dn,
                               "maxPwdAge", NULL);
      if (maxPwdAge == 0) {
            return 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFULL;
      } else {
            attr_time -= maxPwdAge;
      }

      return attr_time;
}

/*
  pull a samr_Password structutre from a result set. 
*/
struct samr_Password *samdb_result_hash(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr)
{
      struct samr_Password *hash = NULL;
      const struct ldb_val *val = ldb_msg_find_ldb_val(msg, attr);
      if (val && (val->length >= sizeof(hash->hash))) {
            hash = talloc(mem_ctx, struct samr_Password);
            memcpy(hash->hash, val->data, MIN(val->length, sizeof(hash->hash)));
      }
      return hash;
}

/*
  pull an array of samr_Password structures from a result set.
*/
unsigned int samdb_result_hashes(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const struct ldb_message *msg,
                     const char *attr, struct samr_Password **hashes)
{
      unsigned int count, i;
      const struct ldb_val *val = ldb_msg_find_ldb_val(msg, attr);

      *hashes = NULL;
      if (!val) {
            return 0;
      }
      count = val->length / 16;
      if (count == 0) {
            return 0;
      }

      *hashes = talloc_array(mem_ctx, struct samr_Password, count);
      if (! *hashes) {
            return 0;
      }

      for (i=0;i<count;i++) {
            memcpy((*hashes)[i].hash, (i*16)+(char *)val->data, 16);
      }

      return count;
}

NTSTATUS samdb_result_passwords(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct loadparm_context *lp_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                        struct samr_Password **lm_pwd, struct samr_Password **nt_pwd) 
{
      struct samr_Password *lmPwdHash, *ntPwdHash;
      if (nt_pwd) {
            unsigned int num_nt;
            num_nt = samdb_result_hashes(mem_ctx, msg, "unicodePwd", &ntPwdHash);
            if (num_nt == 0) {
                  *nt_pwd = NULL;
            } else if (num_nt > 1) {
                  return NT_STATUS_INTERNAL_DB_CORRUPTION;
            } else {
                  *nt_pwd = &ntPwdHash[0];
            }
      }
      if (lm_pwd) {
            /* Ensure that if we have turned off LM
             * authentication, that we never use the LM hash, even
             * if we store it */
            if (lpcfg_lanman_auth(lp_ctx)) {
                  unsigned int num_lm;
                  num_lm = samdb_result_hashes(mem_ctx, msg, "dBCSPwd", &lmPwdHash);
                  if (num_lm == 0) {
                        *lm_pwd = NULL;
                  } else if (num_lm > 1) {
                        return NT_STATUS_INTERNAL_DB_CORRUPTION;
                  } else {
                        *lm_pwd = &lmPwdHash[0];
                  }
            } else {
                  *lm_pwd = NULL;
            }
      }
      return NT_STATUS_OK;
}

/*
  pull a samr_LogonHours structutre from a result set. 
*/
struct samr_LogonHours samdb_result_logon_hours(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr)
{
      struct samr_LogonHours hours;
      size_t units_per_week = 168;
      const struct ldb_val *val = ldb_msg_find_ldb_val(msg, attr);

      ZERO_STRUCT(hours);

      if (val) {
            units_per_week = val->length * 8;
      }

      hours.bits = talloc_array(mem_ctx, uint8_t, units_per_week/8);
      if (!hours.bits) {
            return hours;
      }
      hours.units_per_week = units_per_week;
      memset(hours.bits, 0xFF, units_per_week/8);
      if (val) {
            memcpy(hours.bits, val->data, val->length);
      }

      return hours;
}

/*
  pull a set of account_flags from a result set. 

  This requires that the attributes: 
   pwdLastSet
   userAccountControl
  be included in 'msg'
*/
uint32_t samdb_result_acct_flags(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, 
                         struct ldb_message *msg, struct ldb_dn *domain_dn)
{
      uint32_t userAccountControl = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint(msg, "userAccountControl", 0);
      uint32_t acct_flags = ds_uf2acb(userAccountControl);
      NTTIME must_change_time;
      NTTIME now;

      must_change_time = samdb_result_force_password_change(sam_ctx, mem_ctx, 
                                                domain_dn, msg);

      /* Test account expire time */
      unix_to_nt_time(&now, time(NULL));
      /* check for expired password */
      if (must_change_time < now) {
            acct_flags |= ACB_PW_EXPIRED;
      }
      return acct_flags;
}

struct lsa_BinaryString samdb_result_parameters(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                                    struct ldb_message *msg,
                                    const char *attr)
{
      struct lsa_BinaryString s;
      const struct ldb_val *val = ldb_msg_find_ldb_val(msg, attr);

      ZERO_STRUCT(s);

      if (!val) {
            return s;
      }

      s.array = talloc_array(mem_ctx, uint16_t, val->length/2);
      if (!s.array) {
            return s;
      }
      s.length = s.size = val->length;
      memcpy(s.array, val->data, val->length);

      return s;
}

/* Find an attribute, with a particular value */

/* The current callers of this function expect a very specific
 * behaviour: In particular, objectClass subclass equivilance is not
 * wanted.  This means that we should not lookup the schema for the
 * comparison function */
struct ldb_message_element *samdb_find_attribute(struct ldb_context *ldb, 
                                     const struct ldb_message *msg, 
                                     const char *name, const char *value)
{
      unsigned int i;
      struct ldb_message_element *el = ldb_msg_find_element(msg, name);

      if (!el) {
            return NULL;
      }

      for (i=0;i<el->num_values;i++) {
            if (ldb_attr_cmp(value, (char *)el->values[i].data) == 0) {
                  return el;
            }
      }

      return NULL;
}

/*
 * This is intended for use by the "password hash" module since there
 * password changes can be specified through one message element with the
 * new password (to set) and another one with the old password (to unset).
 *
 * The first which sets a password (new value) can have flags
 * (LDB_FLAG_MOD_ADD, LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE) but also none (on "add" operations
 * for entries). The latter (old value) has always specified
 * LDB_FLAG_MOD_DELETE.
 *
 * Returns LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_ATTRIBUTE if the attribute which should be deleted
 * doesn't contain only one value (this is the Windows Server behaviour)
 * otherwise LDB_SUCCESS.
 */
int samdb_msg_find_old_and_new_ldb_val(const struct ldb_message *msg,
                               const char *name,
                               const struct ldb_val **new_val,
                               const struct ldb_val **old_val)
{
      unsigned int i;

      *new_val = NULL;
      *old_val = NULL;

      if (msg == NULL) {
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < msg->num_elements; i++) {
            if (ldb_attr_cmp(msg->elements[i].name, name) == 0) {
                  if (LDB_FLAG_MOD_TYPE(msg->elements[i].flags) == LDB_FLAG_MOD_DELETE) {
                        *old_val = &msg->elements[i].values[0];
                  } else {
                        *new_val = &msg->elements[i].values[0];
                  }
            }
      }

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

int samdb_find_or_add_value(struct ldb_context *ldb, struct ldb_message *msg, const char *name, const char *set_value)
{
      if (samdb_find_attribute(ldb, msg, name, set_value) == NULL) {
            return samdb_msg_add_string(ldb, msg, msg, name, set_value);
      }
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

int samdb_find_or_add_attribute(struct ldb_context *ldb, struct ldb_message *msg, const char *name, const char *set_value)
{
      struct ldb_message_element *el;

            el = ldb_msg_find_element(msg, name);
      if (el) {
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      return samdb_msg_add_string(ldb, msg, msg, name, set_value);
}



/*
  add a string element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_string(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name, const char *str)
{
      char *s = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx, str);
      char *a = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx, attr_name);
      if (s == NULL || a == NULL) {
            return ldb_oom(sam_ldb);
      }
      return ldb_msg_add_string(msg, a, s);
}

/*
  add a dom_sid element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_dom_sid(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name, struct dom_sid *sid)
{
      struct ldb_val v;
      enum ndr_err_code ndr_err;

      ndr_err = ndr_push_struct_blob(&v, mem_ctx, 
                               sid,
                               (ndr_push_flags_fn_t)ndr_push_dom_sid);
      if (!NDR_ERR_CODE_IS_SUCCESS(ndr_err)) {
            return ldb_operr(sam_ldb);
      }
      return ldb_msg_add_value(msg, attr_name, &v, NULL);
}


/*
  add a delete element operation to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_delete(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name)
{
      /* we use an empty replace rather than a delete, as it allows for 
         dsdb_replace() to be used everywhere */
      return ldb_msg_add_empty(msg, attr_name, LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE, NULL);
}

/*
  add an add attribute value to a message or enhance an existing attribute
  which has the same name and the add flag set.
*/
int samdb_msg_add_addval(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                   struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr_name,
                   const char *value)
{
      struct ldb_message_element *el;
      struct ldb_val val, *vals;
      char *v;
      unsigned int i;
      bool found = false;
      int ret;

      v = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx, value);
      if (v == NULL) {
            return ldb_oom(sam_ldb);
      }

      val.data = (uint8_t *) v;
      val.length = strlen(v);

      if (val.length == 0) {
            /* allow empty strings as non-existent attributes */
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < msg->num_elements; i++) {
            el = &msg->elements[i];
            if ((ldb_attr_cmp(el->name, attr_name) == 0) &&
                (LDB_FLAG_MOD_TYPE(el->flags) == LDB_FLAG_MOD_ADD)) {
                  found = true;
                  break;
            }
      }
      if (!found) {
            ret = ldb_msg_add_empty(msg, attr_name, LDB_FLAG_MOD_ADD,
                              &el);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      vals = talloc_realloc(msg, el->values, struct ldb_val,
                        el->num_values + 1);
      if (vals == NULL) {
            return ldb_oom(sam_ldb);
      }
      el->values = vals;
      el->values[el->num_values] = val;
      ++(el->num_values);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  add a delete attribute value to a message or enhance an existing attribute
  which has the same name and the delete flag set.
*/
int samdb_msg_add_delval(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                   struct ldb_message *msg, const char *attr_name,
                   const char *value)
{
      struct ldb_message_element *el;
      struct ldb_val val, *vals;
      char *v;
      unsigned int i;
      bool found = false;
      int ret;

      v = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx, value);
      if (v == NULL) {
            return ldb_oom(sam_ldb);
      }

      val.data = (uint8_t *) v;
      val.length = strlen(v);

      if (val.length == 0) {
            /* allow empty strings as non-existent attributes */
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < msg->num_elements; i++) {
            el = &msg->elements[i];
            if ((ldb_attr_cmp(el->name, attr_name) == 0) &&
                (LDB_FLAG_MOD_TYPE(el->flags) == LDB_FLAG_MOD_DELETE)) {
                  found = true;
                  break;
            }
      }
      if (!found) {
            ret = ldb_msg_add_empty(msg, attr_name, LDB_FLAG_MOD_DELETE,
                              &el);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      vals = talloc_realloc(msg, el->values, struct ldb_val,
                        el->num_values + 1);
      if (vals == NULL) {
            return ldb_oom(sam_ldb);
      }
      el->values = vals;
      el->values[el->num_values] = val;
      ++(el->num_values);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  add a int element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_int(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name, int v)
{
      const char *s = talloc_asprintf(mem_ctx, "%d", v);
      return samdb_msg_add_string(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr_name, s);
}

/*
  add a unsigned int element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_uint(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name, unsigned int v)
{
      return samdb_msg_add_int(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr_name, (int)v);
}

/*
  add a (signed) int64_t element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_int64(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                  const char *attr_name, int64_t v)
{
      const char *s = talloc_asprintf(mem_ctx, "%lld", (long long)v);
      return samdb_msg_add_string(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr_name, s);
}

/*
  add a uint64_t element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_uint64(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                  const char *attr_name, uint64_t v)
{
      return samdb_msg_add_int64(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr_name, (int64_t)v);
}

/*
  add a samr_Password element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_hash(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name, const struct samr_Password *hash)
{
      struct ldb_val val;
      val.data = talloc_memdup(mem_ctx, hash->hash, 16);
      if (!val.data) {
            return ldb_oom(sam_ldb);
      }
      val.length = 16;
      return ldb_msg_add_value(msg, attr_name, &val, NULL);
}

/*
  add a samr_Password array to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_hashes(struct ldb_context *ldb,
                   TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name, struct samr_Password *hashes,
                   unsigned int count)
{
      struct ldb_val val;
      unsigned int i;
      val.data = talloc_array_size(mem_ctx, 16, count);
      val.length = count*16;
      if (!val.data) {
            return ldb_oom(ldb);
      }
      for (i=0;i<count;i++) {
            memcpy(i*16 + (char *)val.data, hashes[i].hash, 16);
      }
      return ldb_msg_add_value(msg, attr_name, &val, NULL);
}

/*
  add a acct_flags element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_acct_flags(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                       const char *attr_name, uint32_t v)
{
      return samdb_msg_add_uint(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr_name, ds_acb2uf(v));
}

/*
  add a logon_hours element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_logon_hours(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                        const char *attr_name, struct samr_LogonHours *hours)
{
      struct ldb_val val;
      val.length = hours->units_per_week / 8;
      val.data = hours->bits;
      return ldb_msg_add_value(msg, attr_name, &val, NULL);
}

/*
  add a parameters element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_parameters(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                       const char *attr_name, struct lsa_BinaryString *parameters)
{
      struct ldb_val val;
      val.length = parameters->length;
      val.data = (uint8_t *)parameters->array;
      return ldb_msg_add_value(msg, attr_name, &val, NULL);
}
/*
  add a general value element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_add_value(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                        const char *attr_name, const struct ldb_val *val)
{
      return ldb_msg_add_value(msg, attr_name, val, NULL);
}

/*
  sets a general value element to a message
*/
int samdb_msg_set_value(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                  const char *attr_name, const struct ldb_val *val)
{
      struct ldb_message_element *el;

      el = ldb_msg_find_element(msg, attr_name);
      if (el) {
            el->num_values = 0;
      }
      return ldb_msg_add_value(msg, attr_name, val, NULL);
}

/*
  set a string element in a message
*/
int samdb_msg_set_string(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_message *msg,
                   const char *attr_name, const char *str)
{
      struct ldb_message_element *el;

      el = ldb_msg_find_element(msg, attr_name);
      if (el) {
            el->num_values = 0;
      }
      return samdb_msg_add_string(sam_ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr_name, str);
}

/*
 * Handle ldb_request in transaction
 */
static int dsdb_autotransaction_request(struct ldb_context *sam_ldb,
                              struct ldb_request *req)
{
      int ret;

      ret = ldb_transaction_start(sam_ldb);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }

      ret = ldb_request(sam_ldb, req);
      if (ret == LDB_SUCCESS) {
            ret = ldb_wait(req->handle, LDB_WAIT_ALL);
      }

      if (ret == LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ldb_transaction_commit(sam_ldb);
      }
      ldb_transaction_cancel(sam_ldb);

      return ret;
}

/*
  return a default security descriptor
*/
struct security_descriptor *samdb_default_security_descriptor(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
      struct security_descriptor *sd;

      sd = security_descriptor_initialise(mem_ctx);

      return sd;
}

struct ldb_dn *samdb_aggregate_schema_dn(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx) 
{
      struct ldb_dn *schema_dn = ldb_get_schema_basedn(sam_ctx);
      struct ldb_dn *aggregate_dn;
      if (!schema_dn) {
            return NULL;
      }

      aggregate_dn = ldb_dn_copy(mem_ctx, schema_dn);
      if (!aggregate_dn) {
            return NULL;
      }
      if (!ldb_dn_add_child_fmt(aggregate_dn, "CN=Aggregate")) {
            return NULL;
      }
      return aggregate_dn;
}

struct ldb_dn *samdb_partitions_dn(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
      struct ldb_dn *new_dn;

      new_dn = ldb_dn_copy(mem_ctx, ldb_get_config_basedn(sam_ctx));
      if ( ! ldb_dn_add_child_fmt(new_dn, "CN=Partitions")) {
            talloc_free(new_dn);
            return NULL;
      }
      return new_dn;
}

struct ldb_dn *samdb_infrastructure_dn(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
       struct ldb_dn *new_dn;

       new_dn = ldb_dn_copy(mem_ctx, ldb_get_default_basedn(sam_ctx));
       if ( ! ldb_dn_add_child_fmt(new_dn, "CN=Infrastructure")) {
               talloc_free(new_dn);
               return NULL;
       }
       return new_dn;
}

struct ldb_dn *samdb_sites_dn(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
      struct ldb_dn *new_dn;

      new_dn = ldb_dn_copy(mem_ctx, ldb_get_config_basedn(sam_ctx));
      if ( ! ldb_dn_add_child_fmt(new_dn, "CN=Sites")) {
            talloc_free(new_dn);
            return NULL;
      }
      return new_dn;
}

/*
  work out the domain sid for the current open ldb
*/
const struct dom_sid *samdb_domain_sid(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      const struct dom_sid *domain_sid;
      const char *attrs[] = {
            "objectSid",
            NULL
      };
      struct ldb_result *res;
      int ret;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      domain_sid = (struct dom_sid *)ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "cache.domain_sid");
      if (domain_sid) {
            return domain_sid;
      }

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, ldb_get_default_basedn(ldb), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, "objectSid=*");

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      if (res->count != 1) {
            goto failed;
      }

      domain_sid = samdb_result_dom_sid(tmp_ctx, res->msgs[0], "objectSid");
      if (domain_sid == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.domain_sid", discard_const_p(struct dom_sid, domain_sid)) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, domain_sid);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return domain_sid;

failed:
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return NULL;
}

/*
  get domain sid from cache
*/
const struct dom_sid *samdb_domain_sid_cache_only(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      return (struct dom_sid *)ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "cache.domain_sid");
}

bool samdb_set_domain_sid(struct ldb_context *ldb, const struct dom_sid *dom_sid_in)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      struct dom_sid *dom_sid_new;
      struct dom_sid *dom_sid_old;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      dom_sid_old = talloc_get_type(ldb_get_opaque(ldb, 
                                         "cache.domain_sid"), struct dom_sid);

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      dom_sid_new = dom_sid_dup(tmp_ctx, dom_sid_in);
      if (!dom_sid_new) {
            goto failed;
      }

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.domain_sid", dom_sid_new) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, dom_sid_new);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      talloc_free(dom_sid_old);

      return true;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to set our own cached domain SID in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return false;
}

bool samdb_set_ntds_settings_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, struct ldb_dn *ntds_settings_dn_in)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      struct ldb_dn *ntds_settings_dn_new;
      struct ldb_dn *ntds_settings_dn_old;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      ntds_settings_dn_old = talloc_get_type(ldb_get_opaque(ldb, 
                                                "cache.ntds_settings_dn"), struct ldb_dn);

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ntds_settings_dn_new = ldb_dn_copy(tmp_ctx, ntds_settings_dn_in);
      if (!ntds_settings_dn_new) {
            goto failed;
      }

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.ntds_settings_dn", ntds_settings_dn_new) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, ntds_settings_dn_new);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      talloc_free(ntds_settings_dn_old);

      return true;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to set our NTDS Settings DN in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return false;
}

/* Obtain the short name of the flexible single master operator
 * (FSMO), such as the PDC Emulator */
const char *samdb_result_fsmo_name(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const struct ldb_message *msg, 
                       const char *attr)
{
      /* Format is cn=NTDS Settings,cn=<NETBIOS name of FSMO>,.... */
      struct ldb_dn *fsmo_dn = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, msg, attr);
      const struct ldb_val *val = ldb_dn_get_component_val(fsmo_dn, 1);
      const char *name = ldb_dn_get_component_name(fsmo_dn, 1);

      if (!name || (ldb_attr_cmp(name, "cn") != 0)) {
            /* Ensure this matches the format.  This gives us a
             * bit more confidence that a 'cn' value will be a
             * ascii string */
            return NULL;
      }
      if (val) {
            return (char *)val->data;
      }
      return NULL;
}

/*
  work out the ntds settings dn for the current open ldb
*/
struct ldb_dn *samdb_ntds_settings_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      const char *root_attrs[] = { "dsServiceName", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *root_res;
      struct ldb_dn *settings_dn;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      settings_dn = (struct ldb_dn *)ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "cache.ntds_settings_dn");
      if (settings_dn) {
            return settings_dn;
      }

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &root_res, ldb_dn_new(tmp_ctx, ldb, ""), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, root_attrs, NULL);
      if (ret) {
            DEBUG(1,("Searching for dsServiceName in rootDSE failed: %s\n", 
                   ldb_errstring(ldb)));
            goto failed;
      }

      if (root_res->count != 1) {
            goto failed;
      }

      settings_dn = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_dn(ldb, tmp_ctx, root_res->msgs[0], "dsServiceName");

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.settings_dn", settings_dn) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, settings_dn);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return settings_dn;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to find our own NTDS Settings DN in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return NULL;
}

/*
  work out the ntds settings invocationId for the current open ldb
*/
const struct GUID *samdb_ntds_invocation_id(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      const char *attrs[] = { "invocationId", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      struct GUID *invocation_id;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      invocation_id = (struct GUID *)ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "cache.invocation_id");
      if (invocation_id) {
            return invocation_id;
      }

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, samdb_ntds_settings_dn(ldb), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL);
      if (ret) {
            goto failed;
      }

      if (res->count != 1) {
            goto failed;
      }

      invocation_id = talloc(tmp_ctx, struct GUID);
      if (!invocation_id) {
            goto failed;
      }

      *invocation_id = samdb_result_guid(res->msgs[0], "invocationId");

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.invocation_id", invocation_id) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, invocation_id);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return invocation_id;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to find our own NTDS Settings invocationId in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return NULL;
}

bool samdb_set_ntds_invocation_id(struct ldb_context *ldb, const struct GUID *invocation_id_in)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      struct GUID *invocation_id_new;
      struct GUID *invocation_id_old;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      invocation_id_old = (struct GUID *)ldb_get_opaque(ldb, 
                                           "cache.invocation_id");

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      invocation_id_new = talloc(tmp_ctx, struct GUID);
      if (!invocation_id_new) {
            goto failed;
      }

      *invocation_id_new = *invocation_id_in;

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.invocation_id", invocation_id_new) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, invocation_id_new);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      talloc_free(invocation_id_old);

      return true;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to set our own cached invocationId in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return false;
}

/*
  work out the ntds settings objectGUID for the current open ldb
*/
const struct GUID *samdb_ntds_objectGUID(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      const char *attrs[] = { "objectGUID", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      struct GUID *ntds_guid;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      ntds_guid = (struct GUID *)ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "cache.ntds_guid");
      if (ntds_guid) {
            return ntds_guid;
      }

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, samdb_ntds_settings_dn(ldb), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL);
      if (ret) {
            goto failed;
      }

      if (res->count != 1) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ntds_guid = talloc(tmp_ctx, struct GUID);
      if (!ntds_guid) {
            goto failed;
      }

      *ntds_guid = samdb_result_guid(res->msgs[0], "objectGUID");

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.ntds_guid", ntds_guid) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, ntds_guid);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return ntds_guid;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to find our own NTDS Settings objectGUID in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return NULL;
}

bool samdb_set_ntds_objectGUID(struct ldb_context *ldb, const struct GUID *ntds_guid_in)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      struct GUID *ntds_guid_new;
      struct GUID *ntds_guid_old;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      ntds_guid_old = (struct GUID *)ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "cache.ntds_guid");

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ntds_guid_new = talloc(tmp_ctx, struct GUID);
      if (!ntds_guid_new) {
            goto failed;
      }

      *ntds_guid_new = *ntds_guid_in;

      /* cache the domain_sid in the ldb */
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.ntds_guid", ntds_guid_new) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, ntds_guid_new);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      talloc_free(ntds_guid_old);

      return true;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to set our own cached invocationId in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return false;
}

/*
  work out the server dn for the current open ldb
*/
struct ldb_dn *samdb_server_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
      return ldb_dn_get_parent(mem_ctx, samdb_ntds_settings_dn(ldb));
}

/*
  work out the server dn for the current open ldb
*/
struct ldb_dn *samdb_server_site_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
      struct ldb_dn *server_dn;
      struct ldb_dn *servers_dn;
      struct ldb_dn *server_site_dn;

      /* TODO: there must be a saner way to do this!! */
      server_dn = samdb_server_dn(ldb, mem_ctx);
      if (!server_dn) return NULL;

      servers_dn = ldb_dn_get_parent(mem_ctx, server_dn);
      talloc_free(server_dn);
      if (!servers_dn) return NULL;

      server_site_dn = ldb_dn_get_parent(mem_ctx, servers_dn);
      talloc_free(servers_dn);

      return server_site_dn;
}

/*
  find a 'reference' DN that points at another object
  (eg. serverReference, rIDManagerReference etc)
 */
int samdb_reference_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn *base,
                   const char *attribute, struct ldb_dn **dn)
{
      const char *attrs[2];
      struct ldb_result *res;
      int ret;

      attrs[0] = attribute;
      attrs[1] = NULL;

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, mem_ctx, &res, base, LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }
      if (res->count != 1) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
      }

      *dn = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, res->msgs[0], attribute);
      if (!*dn) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_ATTRIBUTE;
      }

      talloc_free(res);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  find our machine account via the serverReference attribute in the
  server DN
 */
int samdb_server_reference_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn **dn)
{
      struct ldb_dn *server_dn;
      int ret;

      server_dn = samdb_server_dn(ldb, mem_ctx);
      if (server_dn == NULL) {
            return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
      }

      ret = samdb_reference_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, server_dn, "serverReference", dn);
      talloc_free(server_dn);

      return ret;
}

/*
  find the RID Manager$ DN via the rIDManagerReference attribute in the
  base DN
 */
int samdb_rid_manager_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn **dn)
{
      return samdb_reference_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, ldb_get_default_basedn(ldb),
                          "rIDManagerReference", dn);
}

/*
  find the RID Set DN via the rIDSetReferences attribute in our
  machine account DN
 */
int samdb_rid_set_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn **dn)
{
      struct ldb_dn *server_ref_dn;
      int ret;

      ret = samdb_server_reference_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, &server_ref_dn);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }
      ret = samdb_reference_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, server_ref_dn, "rIDSetReferences", dn);
      talloc_free(server_ref_dn);
      return ret;
}

const char *samdb_server_site_name(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
      const struct ldb_val *val = ldb_dn_get_rdn_val(samdb_server_site_dn(ldb,
                                                          mem_ctx));

      if (val == NULL) {
            return NULL;
      }

      return (const char *) val->data;
}

/*
 * Finds the client site by using the client's IP address.
 * The "subnet_name" returns the name of the subnet if parameter != NULL
 */
const char *samdb_client_site_name(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                           const char *ip_address, char **subnet_name)
{
      const char *attrs[] = { "cn", "siteObject", NULL };
      struct ldb_dn *sites_container_dn, *subnets_dn, *sites_dn;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      const struct ldb_val *val;
      const char *site_name = NULL, *l_subnet_name = NULL;
      const char *allow_list[2] = { NULL, NULL };
      unsigned int i, count;
      int cnt, ret;

      /*
       * if we don't have a client ip e.g. ncalrpc
       * the server site is the client site
       */
      if (ip_address == NULL) {
            return samdb_server_site_name(ldb, mem_ctx);
      }

      sites_container_dn = samdb_sites_dn(ldb, mem_ctx);
      if (sites_container_dn == NULL) {
            return NULL;
      }

      subnets_dn = ldb_dn_copy(mem_ctx, sites_container_dn);
      if ( ! ldb_dn_add_child_fmt(subnets_dn, "CN=Subnets")) {
            talloc_free(sites_container_dn);
            talloc_free(subnets_dn);
            return NULL;
      }

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, mem_ctx, &res, subnets_dn, LDB_SCOPE_ONELEVEL,
                   attrs, NULL);
      if (ret == LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT) {
            count = 0;
      } else if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(sites_container_dn);
            talloc_free(subnets_dn);
            return NULL;
      } else {
            count = res->count;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
            l_subnet_name = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_string(res->msgs[i], "cn",
                                              NULL);

            allow_list[0] = l_subnet_name;

            if (allow_access(mem_ctx, NULL, allow_list, "", ip_address)) {
                  sites_dn = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_dn(ldb, mem_ctx,
                                             res->msgs[i],
                                             "siteObject");
                  if (sites_dn == NULL) {
                        /* No reference, maybe another subnet matches */
                        continue;
                  }

                  /* "val" cannot be NULL here since "sites_dn" != NULL */
                  val = ldb_dn_get_rdn_val(sites_dn);
                  site_name = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx,
                                      (const char *) val->data);

                  talloc_free(sites_dn);

                  break;
            }
      }

      if (site_name == NULL) {
            /* This is the Windows Server fallback rule: when no subnet
             * exists and we have only one site available then use it (it
             * is for sure the same as our server site). If more sites do
             * exist then we don't know which one to use and set the site
             * name to "". */
            cnt = samdb_search_count(ldb, sites_container_dn,
                               "(objectClass=site)");
            if (cnt == 1) {
                  site_name = samdb_server_site_name(ldb, mem_ctx);
            } else {
                  site_name = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx, "");
            }
            l_subnet_name = NULL;
      }

      if (subnet_name != NULL) {
            *subnet_name = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx, l_subnet_name);
      }

      talloc_free(sites_container_dn);
      talloc_free(subnets_dn);
      talloc_free(res);

      return site_name;
}

/*
  work out if we are the PDC for the domain of the current open ldb
*/
bool samdb_is_pdc(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      const char *dom_attrs[] = { "fSMORoleOwner", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *dom_res;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      bool is_pdc;
      struct ldb_dn *pdc;

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            DEBUG(1, ("talloc_new failed in samdb_is_pdc"));
            return false;
      }

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &dom_res, ldb_get_default_basedn(ldb), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, dom_attrs, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(1,("Searching for fSMORoleOwner in %s failed: %s\n", 
                   ldb_dn_get_linearized(ldb_get_default_basedn(ldb)), 
                   ldb_errstring(ldb)));
            goto failed;
      }
      if (dom_res->count != 1) {
            goto failed;
      }

      pdc = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_dn(ldb, tmp_ctx, dom_res->msgs[0], "fSMORoleOwner");

      if (ldb_dn_compare(samdb_ntds_settings_dn(ldb), pdc) == 0) {
            is_pdc = true;
      } else {
            is_pdc = false;
      }

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return is_pdc;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to find if we are the PDC for this ldb\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return false;
}

/*
  work out if we are a Global Catalog server for the domain of the current open ldb
*/
bool samdb_is_gc(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      const char *attrs[] = { "options", NULL };
      int ret, options;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            DEBUG(1, ("talloc_new failed in samdb_is_pdc"));
            return false;
      }

      /* Query cn=ntds settings,.... */
      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, samdb_ntds_settings_dn(ldb), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return false;
      }
      if (res->count != 1) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return false;
      }

      options = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_int(res->msgs[0], "options", 0);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      /* if options attribute has the 0x00000001 flag set, then enable the global catlog */
      if (options & 0x000000001) {
            return true;
      }
      return false;
}

/* Find a domain object in the parents of a particular DN.  */
int samdb_search_for_parent_domain(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn *dn,
                           struct ldb_dn **parent_dn, const char **errstring)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *local_ctx;
      struct ldb_dn *sdn = dn;
      struct ldb_result *res = NULL;
      int ret = LDB_SUCCESS;
      const char *attrs[] = { NULL };

      local_ctx = talloc_new(mem_ctx);
      if (local_ctx == NULL) return ldb_oom(ldb);

      while ((sdn = ldb_dn_get_parent(local_ctx, sdn))) {
            ret = ldb_search(ldb, local_ctx, &res, sdn, LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs,
                         "(|(objectClass=domain)(objectClass=builtinDomain))");
            if (ret == LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  if (res->count == 1) {
                        break;
                  }
            } else {
                  break;
            }
      }

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            *errstring = talloc_asprintf(mem_ctx, "Error searching for parent domain of %s, failed searching for %s: %s",
                                   ldb_dn_get_linearized(dn),
                                   ldb_dn_get_linearized(sdn),
                                   ldb_errstring(ldb));
            talloc_free(local_ctx);
            return ret;
      }
      if (res->count != 1) {
            *errstring = talloc_asprintf(mem_ctx, "Invalid dn (%s), not child of a domain object",
                                   ldb_dn_get_linearized(dn));
            DEBUG(0,(__location__ ": %s\n", *errstring));
            talloc_free(local_ctx);
            return LDB_ERR_CONSTRAINT_VIOLATION;
      }

      *parent_dn = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, res->msgs[0]->dn);
      talloc_free(local_ctx);
      return ret;
}


/*
 * Performs checks on a user password (plaintext UNIX format - attribute
 * "password"). The remaining parameters have to be extracted from the domain
 * object in the AD.
 *
 * Result codes from "enum samr_ValidationStatus" (consider "samr.idl")
 */
enum samr_ValidationStatus samdb_check_password(const DATA_BLOB *password,
                                    const uint32_t pwdProperties,
                                    const uint32_t minPwdLength)
{
      /* checks if the "minPwdLength" property is satisfied */
      if (minPwdLength > password->length)
            return SAMR_VALIDATION_STATUS_PWD_TOO_SHORT;

      /* checks the password complexity */
      if (((pwdProperties & DOMAIN_PASSWORD_COMPLEX) != 0)
                  && (password->data != NULL)
                  && (!check_password_quality((const char *) password->data)))
            return SAMR_VALIDATION_STATUS_NOT_COMPLEX_ENOUGH;

      return SAMR_VALIDATION_STATUS_SUCCESS;
}

/*
 * Callback for "samdb_set_password" password change
 */
int samdb_set_password_callback(struct ldb_request *req, struct ldb_reply *ares)
{
      int ret;

      if (!ares) {
            return ldb_request_done(req, LDB_ERR_OPERATIONS_ERROR);
      }

      if (ares->error != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            ret = ares->error;
            req->context = talloc_steal(req,
                                  ldb_reply_get_control(ares, DSDB_CONTROL_PASSWORD_CHANGE_STATUS_OID));
            talloc_free(ares);
            return ldb_request_done(req, ret);
      }

      if (ares->type != LDB_REPLY_DONE) {
            talloc_free(ares);
            return ldb_request_done(req, LDB_ERR_OPERATIONS_ERROR);
      }

      req->context = talloc_steal(req,
                            ldb_reply_get_control(ares, DSDB_CONTROL_PASSWORD_CHANGE_STATUS_OID));
      talloc_free(ares);
      return ldb_request_done(req, LDB_SUCCESS);
}

/*
 * Sets the user password using plaintext UTF16 (attribute "new_password") or
 * LM (attribute "lmNewHash") or NT (attribute "ntNewHash") hash. Also pass
 * the old LM and/or NT hash (attributes "lmOldHash"/"ntOldHash") if it is a
 * user change or not. The "rejectReason" gives some more informations if the
 * change failed.
 *
 * Results: NT_STATUS_OK, NT_STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER, NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL,
 *   NT_STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD, NT_STATUS_PASSWORD_RESTRICTION
 */
NTSTATUS samdb_set_password(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                      struct ldb_dn *user_dn, struct ldb_dn *domain_dn,
                      const DATA_BLOB *new_password,
                      const struct samr_Password *lmNewHash,
                      const struct samr_Password *ntNewHash,
                      const struct samr_Password *lmOldHash,
                      const struct samr_Password *ntOldHash,
                      enum samPwdChangeReason *reject_reason,
                      struct samr_DomInfo1 **_dominfo)
{
      struct ldb_message *msg;
      struct ldb_message_element *el;
      struct ldb_request *req;
      struct dsdb_control_password_change_status *pwd_stat = NULL;
      int ret;
      NTSTATUS status = NT_STATUS_OK;

#define CHECK_RET(x) \
      if (x != LDB_SUCCESS) { \
            talloc_free(msg); \
            return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY; \
      }

      msg = ldb_msg_new(mem_ctx);
      if (msg == NULL) {
            return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
      }
      msg->dn = user_dn;
      if ((new_password != NULL)
                  && ((lmNewHash == NULL) && (ntNewHash == NULL))) {
            /* we have the password as plaintext UTF16 */
            CHECK_RET(samdb_msg_add_value(ldb, mem_ctx, msg,
                  "clearTextPassword", new_password));
            el = ldb_msg_find_element(msg, "clearTextPassword");
            el->flags = LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE;
      } else if ((new_password == NULL)
                  && ((lmNewHash != NULL) || (ntNewHash != NULL))) {
            /* we have a password as LM and/or NT hash */
            if (lmNewHash != NULL) {
                  CHECK_RET(samdb_msg_add_hash(ldb, mem_ctx, msg,
                        "dBCSPwd", lmNewHash));
                  el = ldb_msg_find_element(msg, "dBCSPwd");
                  el->flags = LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE;
            }
            if (ntNewHash != NULL) {
                  CHECK_RET(samdb_msg_add_hash(ldb, mem_ctx, msg,
                        "unicodePwd", ntNewHash));
                  el = ldb_msg_find_element(msg, "unicodePwd");
                  el->flags = LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE;
            }
      } else {
            /* the password wasn't specified correctly */
            talloc_free(msg);
            return NT_STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER;
      }

      /* build modify request */
      ret = ldb_build_mod_req(&req, ldb, mem_ctx, msg, NULL, NULL,
                        samdb_set_password_callback, NULL);
        if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(msg);
            return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
        }

      /* A password change operation */
      if ((ntOldHash != NULL) || (lmOldHash != NULL)) {
            struct dsdb_control_password_change *change;

            change = talloc(req, struct dsdb_control_password_change);
            if (change == NULL) {
                  talloc_free(req);
                  talloc_free(msg);
                  return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
            }

            change->old_nt_pwd_hash = ntOldHash;
            change->old_lm_pwd_hash = lmOldHash;

            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req,
                                    DSDB_CONTROL_PASSWORD_CHANGE_OID,
                                    true, change);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  talloc_free(req);
                  talloc_free(msg);
                  return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
            }
      }
      ret = ldb_request_add_control(req,
                              DSDB_CONTROL_PASSWORD_HASH_VALUES_OID,
                              true, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(req);
            talloc_free(msg);
            return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
      }
      ret = ldb_request_add_control(req,
                              DSDB_CONTROL_PASSWORD_CHANGE_STATUS_OID,
                              true, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(req);
            talloc_free(msg);
            return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
      }

      ret = dsdb_autotransaction_request(ldb, req);

      if (req->context != NULL) {
            pwd_stat = talloc_steal(mem_ctx,
                              ((struct ldb_control *)req->context)->data);
      }

      talloc_free(req);
      talloc_free(msg);

      /* Sets the domain info (if requested) */
      if (_dominfo != NULL) {
            struct samr_DomInfo1 *dominfo;

            dominfo = talloc_zero(mem_ctx, struct samr_DomInfo1);
            if (dominfo == NULL) {
                  return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
            }

            if (pwd_stat != NULL) {
                  dominfo->min_password_length     = pwd_stat->domain_data.minPwdLength;
                  dominfo->password_properties     = pwd_stat->domain_data.pwdProperties;
                  dominfo->password_history_length = pwd_stat->domain_data.pwdHistoryLength;
                  dominfo->max_password_age        = pwd_stat->domain_data.maxPwdAge;
                  dominfo->min_password_age        = pwd_stat->domain_data.minPwdAge;
            }

            *_dominfo = dominfo;
      }

      if (reject_reason != NULL) {
            if (pwd_stat != NULL) {
                  *reject_reason = pwd_stat->reject_reason;
            } else {
                  *reject_reason = SAM_PWD_CHANGE_NO_ERROR;
            }
      }

      if (pwd_stat != NULL) {
            talloc_free(pwd_stat);
      }

      if (ret == LDB_ERR_CONSTRAINT_VIOLATION) {
            const char *errmsg = ldb_errstring(ldb);
            char *endptr = NULL;
            WERROR werr = WERR_GENERAL_FAILURE;
            status = NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL;
            if (errmsg != NULL) {
                  werr = W_ERROR(strtol(errmsg, &endptr, 16));
            }
            if (endptr != errmsg) {
                  if (W_ERROR_EQUAL(werr, WERR_INVALID_PASSWORD)) {
                        status = NT_STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD;
                  }
                  if (W_ERROR_EQUAL(werr, WERR_PASSWORD_RESTRICTION)) {
                        status = NT_STATUS_PASSWORD_RESTRICTION;
                  }
            }
      } else if (ret == LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT) {
            /* don't let the caller know if an account doesn't exist */
            status = NT_STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD;
      } else if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            status = NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL;
      }

      return status;
}

/*
 * Sets the user password using plaintext UTF16 (attribute "new_password") or
 * LM (attribute "lmNewHash") or NT (attribute "ntNewHash") hash. Also pass
 * the old LM and/or NT hash (attributes "lmOldHash"/"ntOldHash") if it is a
 * user change or not. The "rejectReason" gives some more informations if the
 * change failed.
 *
 * This wrapper function for "samdb_set_password" takes a SID as input rather
 * than a user DN.
 *
 * This call encapsulates a new LDB transaction for changing the password;
 * therefore the user hasn't to start a new one.
 *
 * Results: NT_STATUS_OK, NT_STATUS_INTERNAL_DB_CORRUPTION,
 *   NT_STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER, NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL,
 *   NT_STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD, NT_STATUS_PASSWORD_RESTRICTION,
 *   NT_STATUS_TRANSACTION_ABORTED, NT_STATUS_NO_SUCH_USER
 */
NTSTATUS samdb_set_password_sid(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                        const struct dom_sid *user_sid,
                        const DATA_BLOB *new_password,
                        const struct samr_Password *lmNewHash,
                        const struct samr_Password *ntNewHash,
                        const struct samr_Password *lmOldHash,
                        const struct samr_Password *ntOldHash,
                        enum samPwdChangeReason *reject_reason,
                        struct samr_DomInfo1 **_dominfo) 
{
      NTSTATUS nt_status;
      struct ldb_dn *user_dn;
      int ret;

      ret = ldb_transaction_start(ldb);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(1, ("Failed to start transaction: %s\n", ldb_errstring(ldb)));
            return NT_STATUS_TRANSACTION_ABORTED;
      }

      user_dn = samdb_search_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, NULL,
                          "(&(objectSid=%s)(objectClass=user))", 
                          ldap_encode_ndr_dom_sid(mem_ctx, user_sid));
      if (!user_dn) {
            ldb_transaction_cancel(ldb);
            DEBUG(3, ("samdb_set_password_sid: SID %s not found in samdb, returning NO_SUCH_USER\n",
                    dom_sid_string(mem_ctx, user_sid)));
            return NT_STATUS_NO_SUCH_USER;
      }

      nt_status = samdb_set_password(ldb, mem_ctx,
                               user_dn, NULL,
                               new_password,
                               lmNewHash, ntNewHash,
                               lmOldHash, ntOldHash,
                               reject_reason, _dominfo);
      if (!NT_STATUS_IS_OK(nt_status)) {
            ldb_transaction_cancel(ldb);
            talloc_free(user_dn);
            return nt_status;
      }

      ret = ldb_transaction_commit(ldb);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(0,("Failed to commit transaction to change password on %s: %s\n",
                   ldb_dn_get_linearized(user_dn),
                   ldb_errstring(ldb)));
            talloc_free(user_dn);
            return NT_STATUS_TRANSACTION_ABORTED;
      }

      talloc_free(user_dn);
      return NT_STATUS_OK;
}


NTSTATUS samdb_create_foreign_security_principal(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, 
                                     struct dom_sid *sid, struct ldb_dn **ret_dn) 
{
      struct ldb_message *msg;
      struct ldb_dn *basedn;
      char *sidstr;
      int ret;

      sidstr = dom_sid_string(mem_ctx, sid);
      NT_STATUS_HAVE_NO_MEMORY(sidstr);

      /* We might have to create a ForeignSecurityPrincipal, even if this user
       * is in our own domain */

      msg = ldb_msg_new(sidstr);
      if (msg == NULL) {
            talloc_free(sidstr);
            return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
      }

      ret = dsdb_wellknown_dn(sam_ctx, sidstr,
                        ldb_get_default_basedn(sam_ctx),
                        DS_GUID_FOREIGNSECURITYPRINCIPALS_CONTAINER,
                        &basedn);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(0, ("Failed to find DN for "
                    "ForeignSecurityPrincipal container - %s\n", ldb_errstring(sam_ctx)));
            talloc_free(sidstr);
            return NT_STATUS_INTERNAL_DB_CORRUPTION;
      }

      /* add core elements to the ldb_message for the alias */
      msg->dn = basedn;
      if ( ! ldb_dn_add_child_fmt(msg->dn, "CN=%s", sidstr)) {
            talloc_free(sidstr);
            return NT_STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
      }

      samdb_msg_add_string(sam_ctx, msg, msg,
                       "objectClass",
                       "foreignSecurityPrincipal");

      /* create the alias */
      ret = ldb_add(sam_ctx, msg);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(0,("Failed to create foreignSecurityPrincipal "
                   "record %s: %s\n", 
                   ldb_dn_get_linearized(msg->dn),
                   ldb_errstring(sam_ctx)));
            talloc_free(sidstr);
            return NT_STATUS_INTERNAL_DB_CORRUPTION;
      }

      *ret_dn = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, msg->dn);
      talloc_free(sidstr);

      return NT_STATUS_OK;
}


/*
  Find the DN of a domain, assuming it to be a dotted.dns name
*/

struct ldb_dn *samdb_dns_domain_to_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const char *dns_domain) 
{
      unsigned int i;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(mem_ctx);
      const char *binary_encoded;
      const char **split_realm;
      struct ldb_dn *dn;

      if (!tmp_ctx) {
            return NULL;
      }

      split_realm = (const char **)str_list_make(tmp_ctx, dns_domain, ".");
      if (!split_realm) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return NULL;
      }
      dn = ldb_dn_new(mem_ctx, ldb, NULL);
      for (i=0; split_realm[i]; i++) {
            binary_encoded = ldb_binary_encode_string(tmp_ctx, split_realm[i]);
            if (!ldb_dn_add_base_fmt(dn, "dc=%s", binary_encoded)) {
                  DEBUG(2, ("Failed to add dc=%s element to DN %s\n",
                          binary_encoded, ldb_dn_get_linearized(dn)));
                  talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                  return NULL;
            }
      }
      if (!ldb_dn_validate(dn)) {
            DEBUG(2, ("Failed to validated DN %s\n",
                    ldb_dn_get_linearized(dn)));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return NULL;
      }
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return dn;
}

/*
  Find the DN of a domain, be it the netbios or DNS name 
*/
struct ldb_dn *samdb_domain_to_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, 
                          const char *domain_name) 
{
      const char * const domain_ref_attrs[] = {
            "ncName", NULL
      };
      const char * const domain_ref2_attrs[] = {
            NULL
      };
      struct ldb_result *res_domain_ref;
      char *escaped_domain = ldb_binary_encode_string(mem_ctx, domain_name);
      /* find the domain's DN */
      int ret_domain = ldb_search(ldb, mem_ctx,
                                  &res_domain_ref, 
                                  samdb_partitions_dn(ldb, mem_ctx), 
                                  LDB_SCOPE_ONELEVEL, 
                                  domain_ref_attrs,
                                  "(&(nETBIOSName=%s)(objectclass=crossRef))", 
                                  escaped_domain);
      if (ret_domain != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return NULL;
      }

      if (res_domain_ref->count == 0) {
            ret_domain = ldb_search(ldb, mem_ctx,
                                    &res_domain_ref, 
                                    samdb_dns_domain_to_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, domain_name),
                                    LDB_SCOPE_BASE,
                                    domain_ref2_attrs,
                                    "(objectclass=domain)");
            if (ret_domain != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return NULL;
            }

            if (res_domain_ref->count == 1) {
                  return res_domain_ref->msgs[0]->dn;
            }
            return NULL;
      }

      if (res_domain_ref->count > 1) {
            DEBUG(0,("Found %d records matching domain [%s]\n", 
                   ret_domain, domain_name));
            return NULL;
      }

      return samdb_result_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, res_domain_ref->msgs[0], "nCName", NULL);

}


/*
  use a GUID to find a DN
 */
int dsdb_find_dn_by_guid(struct ldb_context *ldb, 
                   TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                   const struct GUID *guid, struct ldb_dn **dn)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      const char *attrs[] = { NULL };
      char *guid_str = GUID_string(mem_ctx, guid);

      if (!guid_str) {
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      ret = dsdb_search(ldb, mem_ctx, &res, NULL, LDB_SCOPE_SUBTREE, attrs,
                    DSDB_SEARCH_SEARCH_ALL_PARTITIONS |
                    DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_EXTENDED_DN |
                    DSDB_SEARCH_ONE_ONLY,
                    "objectGUID=%s", guid_str);
      talloc_free(guid_str);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }

      *dn = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, res->msgs[0]->dn);
      talloc_free(res);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  use a DN to find a GUID with a given attribute name
 */
int dsdb_find_guid_attr_by_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb,
                        struct ldb_dn *dn, const char *attribute,
                        struct GUID *guid)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      const char *attrs[2];
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);

      attrs[0] = attribute;
      attrs[1] = NULL;

      ret = dsdb_search_dn(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, dn, attrs, DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_DELETED);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }
      if (res->count < 1) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
      }
      *guid = samdb_result_guid(res->msgs[0], attribute);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  use a DN to find a GUID
 */
int dsdb_find_guid_by_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb,
                   struct ldb_dn *dn, struct GUID *guid)
{
      return dsdb_find_guid_attr_by_dn(ldb, dn, "objectGUID", guid);
}



/*
 adds the given GUID to the given ldb_message. This value is added
 for the given attr_name (may be either "objectGUID" or "parentGUID").
 */
int dsdb_msg_add_guid(struct ldb_message *msg,
            struct GUID *guid,
            const char *attr_name)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_val v;
      NTSTATUS status;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx =  talloc_init("dsdb_msg_add_guid");

      status = GUID_to_ndr_blob(guid, tmp_ctx, &v);
      if (!NT_STATUS_IS_OK(status)) {
            ret = LDB_ERR_OPERATIONS_ERROR;
            goto done;
      }

      ret = ldb_msg_add_steal_value(msg, attr_name, &v);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(4,(__location__ ": Failed to add %s to the message\n",
                               attr_name));
            goto done;
      }

      ret = LDB_SUCCESS;

done:
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return ret;

}


/*
  use a DN to find a SID
 */
int dsdb_find_sid_by_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb, 
                  struct ldb_dn *dn, struct dom_sid *sid)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      const char *attrs[] = { "objectSID", NULL };
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      struct dom_sid *s;

      ZERO_STRUCTP(sid);

      ret = dsdb_search_dn(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, dn, attrs, DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_DELETED);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }
      if (res->count < 1) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
      }
      s = samdb_result_dom_sid(tmp_ctx, res->msgs[0], "objectSID");
      if (s == NULL) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
      }
      *sid = *s;
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  use a SID to find a DN
 */
int dsdb_find_dn_by_sid(struct ldb_context *ldb,
                  TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                  struct dom_sid *sid, struct ldb_dn **dn)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      const char *attrs[] = { NULL };
      char *sid_str = dom_sid_string(mem_ctx, sid);

      if (!sid_str) {
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      ret = dsdb_search(ldb, mem_ctx, &res, NULL, LDB_SCOPE_SUBTREE, attrs,
                    DSDB_SEARCH_SEARCH_ALL_PARTITIONS |
                    DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_EXTENDED_DN |
                    DSDB_SEARCH_ONE_ONLY,
                    "objectSID=%s", sid_str);
      talloc_free(sid_str);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }

      *dn = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, res->msgs[0]->dn);
      talloc_free(res);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  load a repsFromTo blob list for a given partition GUID
  attr must be "repsFrom" or "repsTo"
 */
WERROR dsdb_loadreps(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn *dn,
                 const char *attr, struct repsFromToBlob **r, uint32_t *count)
{
      const char *attrs[] = { attr, NULL };
      struct ldb_result *res = NULL;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(mem_ctx);
      unsigned int i;
      struct ldb_message_element *el;

      *r = NULL;
      *count = 0;

      if (ldb_search(sam_ctx, tmp_ctx, &res, dn, LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL) != LDB_SUCCESS ||
          res->count < 1) {
            DEBUG(0,("dsdb_loadreps: failed to read partition object\n"));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return WERR_DS_DRA_INTERNAL_ERROR;
      }

      el = ldb_msg_find_element(res->msgs[0], attr);
      if (el == NULL) {
            /* it's OK to be empty */
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return WERR_OK;
      }

      *count = el->num_values;
      *r = talloc_array(mem_ctx, struct repsFromToBlob, *count);
      if (*r == NULL) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return WERR_DS_DRA_INTERNAL_ERROR;
      }

      for (i=0; i<(*count); i++) {
            enum ndr_err_code ndr_err;
            ndr_err = ndr_pull_struct_blob(&el->values[i], 
                                     mem_ctx, 
                                     &(*r)[i], 
                                     (ndr_pull_flags_fn_t)ndr_pull_repsFromToBlob);
            if (!NDR_ERR_CODE_IS_SUCCESS(ndr_err)) {
                  talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                  return WERR_DS_DRA_INTERNAL_ERROR;
            }
      }

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      
      return WERR_OK;
}

/*
  save the repsFromTo blob list for a given partition GUID
  attr must be "repsFrom" or "repsTo"
 */
WERROR dsdb_savereps(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn *dn,
                 const char *attr, struct repsFromToBlob *r, uint32_t count)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(mem_ctx);
      struct ldb_message *msg;
      struct ldb_message_element *el;
      unsigned int i;

      msg = ldb_msg_new(tmp_ctx);
      msg->dn = dn;
      if (ldb_msg_add_empty(msg, attr, LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE, &el) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      el->values = talloc_array(msg, struct ldb_val, count);
      if (!el->values) {
            goto failed;
      }

      for (i=0; i<count; i++) {
            struct ldb_val v;
            enum ndr_err_code ndr_err;

            ndr_err = ndr_push_struct_blob(&v, tmp_ctx, 
                                     &r[i], 
                                     (ndr_push_flags_fn_t)ndr_push_repsFromToBlob);
            if (!NDR_ERR_CODE_IS_SUCCESS(ndr_err)) {
                  goto failed;
            }

            el->num_values++;
            el->values[i] = v;
      }

      if (ldb_modify(sam_ctx, msg) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(0,("Failed to store %s - %s\n", attr, ldb_errstring(sam_ctx)));
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      
      return WERR_OK;

failed:
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return WERR_DS_DRA_INTERNAL_ERROR;
}


/*
  load the uSNHighest and the uSNUrgent attributes from the @REPLCHANGED
  object for a partition
 */
int dsdb_load_partition_usn(struct ldb_context *ldb, struct ldb_dn *dn,
                        uint64_t *uSN, uint64_t *urgent_uSN)
{
      struct ldb_request *req;
      int ret;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      struct dsdb_control_current_partition *p_ctrl;
      struct ldb_result *res;

      res = talloc_zero(tmp_ctx, struct ldb_result);
      if (!res) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_oom(ldb);
      }

      ret = ldb_build_search_req(&req, ldb, tmp_ctx,
                           ldb_dn_new(tmp_ctx, ldb, "@REPLCHANGED"),
                           LDB_SCOPE_BASE,
                           NULL, NULL,
                           NULL,
                           res, ldb_search_default_callback,
                           NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      p_ctrl = talloc(req, struct dsdb_control_current_partition);
      if (p_ctrl == NULL) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_oom(ldb);
      }
      p_ctrl->version = DSDB_CONTROL_CURRENT_PARTITION_VERSION;
      p_ctrl->dn = dn;
      
      ret = ldb_request_add_control(req,
                              DSDB_CONTROL_CURRENT_PARTITION_OID,
                              false, p_ctrl);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }
      
      /* Run the new request */
      ret = ldb_request(ldb, req);
      
      if (ret == LDB_SUCCESS) {
            ret = ldb_wait(req->handle, LDB_WAIT_ALL);
      }

      if (ret == LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT) {
            /* it hasn't been created yet, which means
               an implicit value of zero */
            *uSN = 0;
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      if (res->count < 1) {
            *uSN = 0;
            if (urgent_uSN) {
                  *urgent_uSN = 0;
            }
      } else {
            *uSN = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint64(res->msgs[0], "uSNHighest", 0);
            if (urgent_uSN) {
                  *urgent_uSN = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_uint64(res->msgs[0], "uSNUrgent", 0);
            }
      }

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;     
}

int drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2_compare(const struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2 *c1,
                                       const struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2 *c2)
{
      return GUID_compare(&c1->source_dsa_invocation_id, &c2->source_dsa_invocation_id);
}

int drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor_compare(const struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor *c1,
                            const struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor *c2)
{
      return GUID_compare(&c1->source_dsa_invocation_id, &c2->source_dsa_invocation_id);
}


/*
  see if a computer identified by its invocationId is a RODC
*/
int samdb_is_rodc(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, const struct GUID *objectGUID, bool *is_rodc)
{
      /* 1) find the DN for this servers NTDSDSA object
         2) search for the msDS-isRODC attribute
         3) if not present then not a RODC
         4) if present and TRUE then is a RODC
      */
      struct ldb_dn *config_dn;
      const char *attrs[] = { "msDS-isRODC", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(sam_ctx);

      config_dn = ldb_get_config_basedn(sam_ctx);
      if (!config_dn) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(sam_ctx);
      }

      ret = dsdb_search(sam_ctx, tmp_ctx, &res, config_dn, LDB_SCOPE_SUBTREE, attrs,
                    DSDB_SEARCH_ONE_ONLY, "objectGUID=%s", GUID_string(tmp_ctx, objectGUID));

      if (ret == LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT) {
            *is_rodc = false;
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(1,(("Failed to find our own NTDS Settings object by objectGUID=%s!\n"),
                   GUID_string(tmp_ctx, objectGUID)));
            *is_rodc = false;
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      ret = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_bool(res->msgs[0], "msDS-isRODC", 0);
      *is_rodc = (ret == 1);

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}


/*
  see if we are a RODC
*/
int samdb_rodc(struct ldb_context *sam_ctx, bool *am_rodc)
{
      const struct GUID *objectGUID;
      int ret;
      bool *cached;

      /* see if we have a cached copy */
      cached = (bool *)ldb_get_opaque(sam_ctx, "cache.am_rodc");
      if (cached) {
            *am_rodc = *cached;
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      objectGUID = samdb_ntds_objectGUID(sam_ctx);
      if (!objectGUID) {
            return ldb_operr(sam_ctx);
      }

      ret = samdb_is_rodc(sam_ctx, objectGUID, am_rodc);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }

      cached = talloc(sam_ctx, bool);
      if (cached == NULL) {
            return ldb_oom(sam_ctx);
      }
      *cached = *am_rodc;

      ret = ldb_set_opaque(sam_ctx, "cache.am_rodc", cached);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(cached);
            return ldb_operr(sam_ctx);
      }

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

bool samdb_set_am_rodc(struct ldb_context *ldb, bool am_rodc)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      bool *cached;

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      cached = talloc(tmp_ctx, bool);
      if (!cached) {
            goto failed;
      }

      *cached = am_rodc;
      if (ldb_set_opaque(ldb, "cache.am_rodc", cached) != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      talloc_steal(ldb, cached);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return true;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to set our own cached am_rodc in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return false;
}


/*
  return NTDS options flags. See MS-ADTS 7.1.1.2.2.1.2.1.1 

  flags are DS_NTDS_OPTION_*
*/
int samdb_ntds_options(struct ldb_context *ldb, uint32_t *options)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      const char *attrs[] = { "options", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            goto failed;
      }

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, samdb_ntds_settings_dn(ldb), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      if (res->count != 1) {
            goto failed;
      }

      *options = samdb_result_uint(res->msgs[0], "options", 0);

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to find our own NTDS Settings options in the ldb!\n"));
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
}

const char* samdb_ntds_object_category(TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx, struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      const char *attrs[] = { "objectCategory", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;

      ret = ldb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, samdb_ntds_settings_dn(ldb), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            goto failed;
      }

      if (res->count != 1) {
            goto failed;
      }

      return samdb_result_string(res->msgs[0], "objectCategory", NULL);

failed:
      DEBUG(1,("Failed to find our own NTDS Settings objectCategory in the ldb!\n"));
      return NULL;
}

/*
 * Function which generates a "lDAPDisplayName" attribute from a "CN" one.
 * Algorithm implemented according to MS-ADTS 3.1.1.2.3.4
 */
const char *samdb_cn_to_lDAPDisplayName(TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, const char *cn)
{
      char **tokens, *ret;
      size_t i;

      tokens = str_list_make(mem_ctx, cn, " -_");
      if (tokens == NULL)
            return NULL;

      /* "tolower()" and "toupper()" should also work properly on 0x00 */
      tokens[0][0] = tolower(tokens[0][0]);
      for (i = 1; i < str_list_length((const char **)tokens); i++)
            tokens[i][0] = toupper(tokens[i][0]);

      ret = talloc_strdup(mem_ctx, tokens[0]);
      for (i = 1; i < str_list_length((const char **)tokens); i++)
            ret = talloc_asprintf_append_buffer(ret, "%s", tokens[i]);

      talloc_free(tokens);

      return ret;
}

/*
 * This detects and returns the domain functional level (DS_DOMAIN_FUNCTION_*)
 */
int dsdb_functional_level(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      int *domainFunctionality =
            talloc_get_type(ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "domainFunctionality"), int);
      if (!domainFunctionality) {
            DEBUG(0,(__location__ ": WARNING: domainFunctionality not setup\n"));
            return DS_DOMAIN_FUNCTION_2000;
      }
      return *domainFunctionality;
}

/*
 * This detects and returns the forest functional level (DS_DOMAIN_FUNCTION_*)
 */
int dsdb_forest_functional_level(struct ldb_context *ldb)
{
      int *forestFunctionality =
            talloc_get_type(ldb_get_opaque(ldb, "forestFunctionality"), int);
      if (!forestFunctionality) {
            DEBUG(0,(__location__ ": WARNING: forestFunctionality not setup\n"));
            return DS_DOMAIN_FUNCTION_2000;
      }
      return *forestFunctionality;
}

/*
  set a GUID in an extended DN structure
 */
int dsdb_set_extended_dn_guid(struct ldb_dn *dn, const struct GUID *guid, const char *component_name)
{
      struct ldb_val v;
      NTSTATUS status;
      int ret;

      status = GUID_to_ndr_blob(guid, dn, &v);
      if (!NT_STATUS_IS_OK(status)) {
            return LDB_ERR_INVALID_ATTRIBUTE_SYNTAX;
      }

      ret = ldb_dn_set_extended_component(dn, component_name, &v);
      data_blob_free(&v);
      return ret;
}

/*
  return a GUID from a extended DN structure
 */
NTSTATUS dsdb_get_extended_dn_guid(struct ldb_dn *dn, struct GUID *guid, const char *component_name)
{
      const struct ldb_val *v;

      v = ldb_dn_get_extended_component(dn, component_name);
      if (v == NULL) {
            return NT_STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_NOT_FOUND;
      }

      return GUID_from_ndr_blob(v, guid);
}

/*
  return a uint64_t from a extended DN structure
 */
NTSTATUS dsdb_get_extended_dn_uint64(struct ldb_dn *dn, uint64_t *val, const char *component_name)
{
      const struct ldb_val *v;
      char *s;

      v = ldb_dn_get_extended_component(dn, component_name);
      if (v == NULL) {
            return NT_STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_NOT_FOUND;
      }
      s = talloc_strndup(dn, (const char *)v->data, v->length);
      NT_STATUS_HAVE_NO_MEMORY(s);

      *val = strtoull(s, NULL, 0);

      talloc_free(s);
      return NT_STATUS_OK;
}

/*
  return a NTTIME from a extended DN structure
 */
NTSTATUS dsdb_get_extended_dn_nttime(struct ldb_dn *dn, NTTIME *nttime, const char *component_name)
{
      return dsdb_get_extended_dn_uint64(dn, nttime, component_name);
}

/*
  return a uint32_t from a extended DN structure
 */
NTSTATUS dsdb_get_extended_dn_uint32(struct ldb_dn *dn, uint32_t *val, const char *component_name)
{
      const struct ldb_val *v;
      char *s;

      v = ldb_dn_get_extended_component(dn, component_name);
      if (v == NULL) {
            return NT_STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_NOT_FOUND;
      }

      s = talloc_strndup(dn, (const char *)v->data, v->length);
      NT_STATUS_HAVE_NO_MEMORY(s);

      *val = strtoul(s, NULL, 0);

      talloc_free(s);
      return NT_STATUS_OK;
}

/*
  return a dom_sid from a extended DN structure
 */
NTSTATUS dsdb_get_extended_dn_sid(struct ldb_dn *dn, struct dom_sid *sid, const char *component_name)
{
      const struct ldb_val *sid_blob;
      struct TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      enum ndr_err_code ndr_err;

      sid_blob = ldb_dn_get_extended_component(dn, component_name);
      if (!sid_blob) {
            return NT_STATUS_OBJECT_NAME_NOT_FOUND;
      }

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(NULL);

      ndr_err = ndr_pull_struct_blob_all(sid_blob, tmp_ctx, sid,
                                 (ndr_pull_flags_fn_t)ndr_pull_dom_sid);
      if (!NDR_ERR_CODE_IS_SUCCESS(ndr_err)) {
            NTSTATUS status = ndr_map_error2ntstatus(ndr_err);
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return status;
      }

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return NT_STATUS_OK;
}


/*
  return RMD_FLAGS directly from a ldb_dn
  returns 0 if not found
 */
uint32_t dsdb_dn_rmd_flags(struct ldb_dn *dn)
{
      const struct ldb_val *v;
      char buf[32];
      v = ldb_dn_get_extended_component(dn, "RMD_FLAGS");
      if (!v || v->length > sizeof(buf)-1) return 0;
      strncpy(buf, (const char *)v->data, v->length);
      buf[v->length] = 0;
      return strtoul(buf, NULL, 10);
}

/*
  return RMD_FLAGS directly from a ldb_val for a DN
  returns 0 if RMD_FLAGS is not found
 */
uint32_t dsdb_dn_val_rmd_flags(const struct ldb_val *val)
{
      const char *p;
      uint32_t flags;
      char *end;

      if (val->length < 13) {
            return 0;
      }
      p = memmem(val->data, val->length-2, "<RMD_FLAGS=", 11);
      if (!p) {
            return 0;
      }
      flags = strtoul(p+11, &end, 10);
      if (!end || *end != '>') {
            /* it must end in a > */
            return 0;
      }
      return flags;
}

/*
  return true if a ldb_val containing a DN in storage form is deleted
 */
bool dsdb_dn_is_deleted_val(const struct ldb_val *val)
{
      return (dsdb_dn_val_rmd_flags(val) & DSDB_RMD_FLAG_DELETED) != 0;
}

/*
  return true if a ldb_val containing a DN in storage form is
  in the upgraded w2k3 linked attribute format
 */
bool dsdb_dn_is_upgraded_link_val(struct ldb_val *val)
{
      return memmem(val->data, val->length, "<RMD_ADDTIME=", 13) != NULL;
}

/*
  return a DN for a wellknown GUID
 */
int dsdb_wellknown_dn(struct ldb_context *samdb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                  struct ldb_dn *nc_root, const char *wk_guid,
                  struct ldb_dn **wkguid_dn)
{
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(mem_ctx);
      const char *attrs[] = { NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_dn *dn;
      struct ldb_result *res;

      /* construct the magic WKGUID DN */
      dn = ldb_dn_new_fmt(tmp_ctx, samdb, "<WKGUID=%s,%s>",
                      wk_guid, ldb_dn_get_linearized(nc_root));
      if (!wkguid_dn) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(samdb);
      }

      ret = dsdb_search_dn(samdb, tmp_ctx, &res, dn, attrs, DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_DELETED);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      (*wkguid_dn) = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, res->msgs[0]->dn);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}


static int dsdb_dn_compare_ptrs(struct ldb_dn **dn1, struct ldb_dn **dn2)
{
      return ldb_dn_compare(*dn1, *dn2);
}

/*
  find a NC root given a DN within the NC
 */
int dsdb_find_nc_root(struct ldb_context *samdb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn *dn,
                  struct ldb_dn **nc_root)
{
      const char *root_attrs[] = { "namingContexts", NULL };
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx;
      int ret;
      struct ldb_message_element *el;
      struct ldb_result *root_res;
      unsigned int i;
      struct ldb_dn **nc_dns;

      tmp_ctx = talloc_new(samdb);
      if (tmp_ctx == NULL) {
            return ldb_oom(samdb);
      }

      ret = ldb_search(samdb, tmp_ctx, &root_res,
                   ldb_dn_new(tmp_ctx, samdb, ""), LDB_SCOPE_BASE, root_attrs, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(1,("Searching for namingContexts in rootDSE failed: %s\n", ldb_errstring(samdb)));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
       }

       el = ldb_msg_find_element(root_res->msgs[0], "namingContexts");
       if (!el) {
               DEBUG(1,("Finding namingContexts element in root_res failed: %s\n",
                  ldb_errstring(samdb)));
             talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
             return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_ATTRIBUTE;
       }

       nc_dns = talloc_array(tmp_ctx, struct ldb_dn *, el->num_values);
       if (!nc_dns) {
             talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
             return ldb_oom(samdb);
       }

       for (i=0; i<el->num_values; i++) {
             nc_dns[i] = ldb_dn_from_ldb_val(nc_dns, samdb, &el->values[i]);
             if (nc_dns[i] == NULL) {
                   talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                   return ldb_operr(samdb);
             }
       }

       TYPESAFE_QSORT(nc_dns, el->num_values, dsdb_dn_compare_ptrs);

       for (i=0; i<el->num_values; i++) {
               if (ldb_dn_compare_base(nc_dns[i], dn) == 0) {
                   (*nc_root) = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, nc_dns[i]);
                       talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                       return LDB_SUCCESS;
               }
       }

       talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
       return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
}


/*
  find the deleted objects DN for any object, by looking for the NC
  root, then looking up the wellknown GUID
 */
int dsdb_get_deleted_objects_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb,
                        TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx, struct ldb_dn *obj_dn,
                        struct ldb_dn **do_dn)
{
      struct ldb_dn *nc_root;
      int ret;

      ret = dsdb_find_nc_root(ldb, mem_ctx, obj_dn, &nc_root);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }

      ret = dsdb_wellknown_dn(ldb, mem_ctx, nc_root, DS_GUID_DELETED_OBJECTS_CONTAINER, do_dn);
      talloc_free(nc_root);
      return ret;
}

/*
  return the tombstoneLifetime, in days
 */
int dsdb_tombstone_lifetime(struct ldb_context *ldb, uint32_t *lifetime)
{
      struct ldb_dn *dn;
      dn = ldb_get_config_basedn(ldb);
      if (!dn) {
            return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
      }
      dn = ldb_dn_copy(ldb, dn);
      if (!dn) {
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }
      /* see MS-ADTS section 7.1.1.2.4.1.1. There doesn't appear to
       be a wellknown GUID for this */
      if (!ldb_dn_add_child_fmt(dn, "CN=Directory Service,CN=Windows NT,CN=Services")) {
            talloc_free(dn);
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      *lifetime = samdb_search_uint(ldb, dn, 180, dn, "tombstoneLifetime", "objectClass=nTDSService");
      talloc_free(dn);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  compare a ldb_val to a string case insensitively
 */
int samdb_ldb_val_case_cmp(const char *s, struct ldb_val *v)
{
      size_t len = strlen(s);
      int ret;
      if (len > v->length) return 1;
      ret = strncasecmp(s, (const char *)v->data, v->length);
      if (ret != 0) return ret;
      if (v->length > len && v->data[len] != 0) {
            return -1;
      }
      return 0;
}


/*
  load the UDV for a partition in v2 format
  The list is returned sorted, and with our local cursor added
 */
int dsdb_load_udv_v2(struct ldb_context *samdb, struct ldb_dn *dn, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                 struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2 **cursors, uint32_t *count)
{
      static const char *attrs[] = { "replUpToDateVector", NULL };
      struct ldb_result *r;
      const struct ldb_val *ouv_value;
      unsigned int i;
      int ret;
      uint64_t highest_usn;
      const struct GUID *our_invocation_id;
      struct timeval now = timeval_current();

      ret = ldb_search(samdb, mem_ctx, &r, dn, LDB_SCOPE_BASE, attrs, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }

      ouv_value = ldb_msg_find_ldb_val(r->msgs[0], "replUpToDateVector");
      if (ouv_value) {
            enum ndr_err_code ndr_err;
            struct replUpToDateVectorBlob ouv;

            ndr_err = ndr_pull_struct_blob(ouv_value, r, &ouv,
                                     (ndr_pull_flags_fn_t)ndr_pull_replUpToDateVectorBlob);
            if (!NDR_ERR_CODE_IS_SUCCESS(ndr_err)) {
                  talloc_free(r);
                  return LDB_ERR_INVALID_ATTRIBUTE_SYNTAX;
            }
            if (ouv.version != 2) {
                  /* we always store as version 2, and
                   * replUpToDateVector is not replicated
                   */
                  return LDB_ERR_INVALID_ATTRIBUTE_SYNTAX;
            }

            *count = ouv.ctr.ctr2.count;
            *cursors = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, ouv.ctr.ctr2.cursors);
      } else {
            *count = 0;
            *cursors = NULL;
      }

      talloc_free(r);

      our_invocation_id = samdb_ntds_invocation_id(samdb);
      if (!our_invocation_id) {
            DEBUG(0,(__location__ ": No invocationID on samdb - %s\n", ldb_errstring(samdb)));
            talloc_free(*cursors);
            return ldb_operr(samdb);
      }

      ret = dsdb_load_partition_usn(samdb, dn, &highest_usn, NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            /* nothing to add - this can happen after a vampire */
            TYPESAFE_QSORT(*cursors, *count, drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2_compare);
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      for (i=0; i<*count; i++) {
            if (GUID_equal(our_invocation_id, &(*cursors)[i].source_dsa_invocation_id)) {
                  (*cursors)[i].highest_usn = highest_usn;
                  (*cursors)[i].last_sync_success = timeval_to_nttime(&now);
                  TYPESAFE_QSORT(*cursors, *count, drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2_compare);
                  return LDB_SUCCESS;
            }
      }

      (*cursors) = talloc_realloc(mem_ctx, *cursors, struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2, (*count)+1);
      if (! *cursors) {
            return ldb_oom(samdb);
      }

      (*cursors)[*count].source_dsa_invocation_id = *our_invocation_id;
      (*cursors)[*count].highest_usn = highest_usn;
      (*cursors)[*count].last_sync_success = timeval_to_nttime(&now);
      (*count)++;

      TYPESAFE_QSORT(*cursors, *count, drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2_compare);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  load the UDV for a partition in version 1 format
  The list is returned sorted, and with our local cursor added
 */
int dsdb_load_udv_v1(struct ldb_context *samdb, struct ldb_dn *dn, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                 struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor **cursors, uint32_t *count)
{
      struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor2 *v2;
      uint32_t i;
      int ret;

      ret = dsdb_load_udv_v2(samdb, dn, mem_ctx, &v2, count);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            return ret;
      }

      if (*count == 0) {
            talloc_free(v2);
            *cursors = NULL;
            return LDB_SUCCESS;
      }

      *cursors = talloc_array(mem_ctx, struct drsuapi_DsReplicaCursor, *count);
      if (*cursors == NULL) {
            talloc_free(v2);
            return ldb_oom(samdb);
      }

      for (i=0; i<*count; i++) {
            (*cursors)[i].source_dsa_invocation_id = v2[i].source_dsa_invocation_id;
            (*cursors)[i].highest_usn = v2[i].highest_usn;
      }
      talloc_free(v2);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  add a set of controls to a ldb_request structure based on a set of
  flags. See util.h for a list of available flags
 */
int dsdb_request_add_controls(struct ldb_request *req, uint32_t dsdb_flags)
{
      int ret;
      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_SEARCH_SEARCH_ALL_PARTITIONS) {
            struct ldb_search_options_control *options;
            /* Using the phantom root control allows us to search all partitions */
            options = talloc(req, struct ldb_search_options_control);
            if (options == NULL) {
                  return LDB_ERR_OPERATIONS_ERROR;
            }
            options->search_options = LDB_SEARCH_OPTION_PHANTOM_ROOT;

            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req,
                                    LDB_CONTROL_SEARCH_OPTIONS_OID,
                                    true, options);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_DELETED) {
            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, LDB_CONTROL_SHOW_DELETED_OID, true, NULL);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_DN_IN_STORAGE_FORMAT) {
            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, DSDB_CONTROL_DN_STORAGE_FORMAT_OID, true, NULL);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_EXTENDED_DN) {
            struct ldb_extended_dn_control *extended_ctrl = talloc(req, struct ldb_extended_dn_control);
            if (!extended_ctrl) {
                  return LDB_ERR_OPERATIONS_ERROR;
            }
            extended_ctrl->type = 1;

            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, LDB_CONTROL_EXTENDED_DN_OID, true, extended_ctrl);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_SEARCH_REVEAL_INTERNALS) {
            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, LDB_CONTROL_REVEAL_INTERNALS, false, NULL);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_MODIFY_RELAX) {
            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, LDB_CONTROL_RELAX_OID, false, NULL);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_MODIFY_PERMISSIVE) {
            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, LDB_CONTROL_PERMISSIVE_MODIFY_OID, false, NULL);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_FLAG_AS_SYSTEM) {
            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, LDB_CONTROL_AS_SYSTEM_OID, false, NULL);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_TREE_DELETE) {
            ret = ldb_request_add_control(req, LDB_CONTROL_TREE_DELETE_OID, false, NULL);
            if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
                  return ret;
            }
      }

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  an add with a set of controls
*/
int dsdb_add(struct ldb_context *ldb, const struct ldb_message *message,
           uint32_t dsdb_flags)
{
      struct ldb_request *req;
      int ret;

      ret = ldb_build_add_req(&req, ldb, ldb,
                        message,
                        NULL,
                        NULL,
                        ldb_op_default_callback,
                        NULL);

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) return ret;

      ret = dsdb_request_add_controls(req, dsdb_flags);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(req);
            return ret;
      }

      ret = dsdb_autotransaction_request(ldb, req);

      talloc_free(req);
      return ret;
}

/*
  a modify with a set of controls
*/
int dsdb_modify(struct ldb_context *ldb, const struct ldb_message *message,
            uint32_t dsdb_flags)
{
      struct ldb_request *req;
      int ret;

      ret = ldb_build_mod_req(&req, ldb, ldb,
                        message,
                        NULL,
                        NULL,
                        ldb_op_default_callback,
                        NULL);

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) return ret;

      ret = dsdb_request_add_controls(req, dsdb_flags);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(req);
            return ret;
      }

      ret = dsdb_autotransaction_request(ldb, req);

      talloc_free(req);
      return ret;
}

/*
  like dsdb_modify() but set all the element flags to
  LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE
 */
int dsdb_replace(struct ldb_context *ldb, struct ldb_message *msg, uint32_t dsdb_flags)
{
      unsigned int i;

      /* mark all the message elements as LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE */
      for (i=0;i<msg->num_elements;i++) {
            msg->elements[i].flags = LDB_FLAG_MOD_REPLACE;
      }

      return dsdb_modify(ldb, msg, dsdb_flags);
}


/*
  search for attrs on one DN, allowing for dsdb_flags controls
 */
int dsdb_search_dn(struct ldb_context *ldb,
               TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
               struct ldb_result **_res,
               struct ldb_dn *basedn,
               const char * const *attrs,
               uint32_t dsdb_flags)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_request *req;
      struct ldb_result *res;

      res = talloc_zero(mem_ctx, struct ldb_result);
      if (!res) {
            return ldb_oom(ldb);
      }

      ret = ldb_build_search_req(&req, ldb, res,
                           basedn,
                           LDB_SCOPE_BASE,
                           NULL,
                           attrs,
                           NULL,
                           res,
                           ldb_search_default_callback,
                           NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return ret;
      }

      ret = dsdb_request_add_controls(req, dsdb_flags);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return ret;
      }

      ret = ldb_request(ldb, req);
      if (ret == LDB_SUCCESS) {
            ret = ldb_wait(req->handle, LDB_WAIT_ALL);
      }

      talloc_free(req);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(res);
            return ret;
      }

      *_res = res;
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/*
  general search with dsdb_flags for controls
 */
int dsdb_search(struct ldb_context *ldb,
            TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
            struct ldb_result **_res,
            struct ldb_dn *basedn,
            enum ldb_scope scope,
            const char * const *attrs,
            uint32_t dsdb_flags,
            const char *exp_fmt, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(8, 9)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_request *req;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      va_list ap;
      char *expression = NULL;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(mem_ctx);

      res = talloc_zero(tmp_ctx, struct ldb_result);
      if (!res) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_oom(ldb);
      }

      if (exp_fmt) {
            va_start(ap, exp_fmt);
            expression = talloc_vasprintf(tmp_ctx, exp_fmt, ap);
            va_end(ap);

            if (!expression) {
                  talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                  return ldb_oom(ldb);
            }
      }

      ret = ldb_build_search_req(&req, ldb, tmp_ctx,
                           basedn,
                           scope,
                           expression,
                           attrs,
                           NULL,
                           res,
                           ldb_search_default_callback,
                           NULL);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      ret = dsdb_request_add_controls(req, dsdb_flags);
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      ret = ldb_request(ldb, req);
      if (ret == LDB_SUCCESS) {
            ret = ldb_wait(req->handle, LDB_WAIT_ALL);
      }

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      if (dsdb_flags & DSDB_SEARCH_ONE_ONLY) {
            if (res->count == 0) {
                  talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                  return LDB_ERR_NO_SUCH_OBJECT;
            }
            if (res->count != 1) {
                  talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                  return LDB_ERR_CONSTRAINT_VIOLATION;
            }
      }

      *_res = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, res);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}


/*
  general search with dsdb_flags for controls
  returns exactly 1 record or an error
 */
int dsdb_search_one(struct ldb_context *ldb,
                TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx,
                struct ldb_message **msg,
                struct ldb_dn *basedn,
                enum ldb_scope scope,
                const char * const *attrs,
                uint32_t dsdb_flags,
                const char *exp_fmt, ...) _PRINTF_ATTRIBUTE(8, 9)
{
      int ret;
      struct ldb_result *res;
      va_list ap;
      char *expression = NULL;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(mem_ctx);

      dsdb_flags |= DSDB_SEARCH_ONE_ONLY;

      res = talloc_zero(tmp_ctx, struct ldb_result);
      if (!res) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_oom(ldb);
      }

      if (exp_fmt) {
            va_start(ap, exp_fmt);
            expression = talloc_vasprintf(tmp_ctx, exp_fmt, ap);
            va_end(ap);

            if (!expression) {
                  talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
                  return ldb_oom(ldb);
            }
            ret = dsdb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, basedn, scope, attrs,
                          dsdb_flags, "%s", expression);
      } else {
            ret = dsdb_search(ldb, tmp_ctx, &res, basedn, scope, attrs,
                          dsdb_flags, NULL);
      }

      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ret;
      }

      *msg = talloc_steal(mem_ctx, res->msgs[0]);
      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);

      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

/* returns back the forest DNS name */
const char *samdb_forest_name(struct ldb_context *ldb, TALLOC_CTX *mem_ctx)
{
      const char *forest_name = ldb_dn_canonical_string(mem_ctx,
                                            ldb_get_root_basedn(ldb));
      char *p;

      if (forest_name == NULL) {
            return NULL;
      }

      p = strchr(forest_name, '/');
      if (p) {
            *p = '\0';
      }

      return forest_name;
}

/*
   validate that an DSA GUID belongs to the specified user sid.
   The user SID must be a domain controller account (either RODC or
   RWDC)
 */
int dsdb_validate_dsa_guid(struct ldb_context *ldb,
                     const struct GUID *dsa_guid,
                     const struct dom_sid *sid)
{
      /* strategy:
          - find DN of record with the DSA GUID in the
            configuration partition (objectGUID)
            - remove "NTDS Settings" component from DN
          - do a base search on that DN for serverReference with
            extended-dn enabled
            - extract objectSID from resulting serverReference
              attribute
          - check this sid matches the sid argument
      */
      struct ldb_dn *config_dn;
      TALLOC_CTX *tmp_ctx = talloc_new(ldb);
      struct ldb_message *msg;
      const char *attrs1[] = { NULL };
      const char *attrs2[] = { "serverReference", NULL };
      int ret;
      struct ldb_dn *dn, *account_dn;
      struct dom_sid sid2;
      NTSTATUS status;

      config_dn = ldb_get_config_basedn(ldb);

      ret = dsdb_search_one(ldb, tmp_ctx, &msg, config_dn, LDB_SCOPE_SUBTREE,
                        attrs1, 0, "(&(objectGUID=%s)(objectClass=nTDSDSA))", GUID_string(tmp_ctx, dsa_guid));
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(1,(__location__ ": Failed to find DSA objectGUID %s for sid %s\n",
                   GUID_string(tmp_ctx, dsa_guid), dom_sid_string(tmp_ctx, sid)));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }
      dn = msg->dn;

      if (!ldb_dn_remove_child_components(dn, 1)) {
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      ret = dsdb_search_one(ldb, tmp_ctx, &msg, dn, LDB_SCOPE_BASE,
                        attrs2, DSDB_SEARCH_SHOW_EXTENDED_DN,
                        "(objectClass=server)");
      if (ret != LDB_SUCCESS) {
            DEBUG(1,(__location__ ": Failed to find server record for DSA with objectGUID %s, sid %s\n",
                   GUID_string(tmp_ctx, dsa_guid), dom_sid_string(tmp_ctx, sid)));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      account_dn = ldb_msg_find_attr_as_dn(ldb, tmp_ctx, msg, "serverReference");
      if (account_dn == NULL) {
            DEBUG(1,(__location__ ": Failed to find account_dn for DSA with objectGUID %s, sid %s\n",
                   GUID_string(tmp_ctx, dsa_guid), dom_sid_string(tmp_ctx, sid)));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      status = dsdb_get_extended_dn_sid(account_dn, &sid2, "SID");
      if (!NT_STATUS_IS_OK(status)) {
            DEBUG(1,(__location__ ": Failed to find SID for DSA with objectGUID %s, sid %s\n",
                   GUID_string(tmp_ctx, dsa_guid), dom_sid_string(tmp_ctx, sid)));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      if (!dom_sid_equal(sid, &sid2)) {
            /* someone is trying to spoof another account */
            DEBUG(0,(__location__ ": Bad DSA objectGUID %s for sid %s - expected sid %s\n",
                   GUID_string(tmp_ctx, dsa_guid),
                   dom_sid_string(tmp_ctx, sid),
                   dom_sid_string(tmp_ctx, &sid2)));
            talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
            return ldb_operr(ldb);
      }

      talloc_free(tmp_ctx);
      return LDB_SUCCESS;
}

static const char *secret_attributes[] = {
      "currentValue",
      "dBCSPwd",
      "initialAuthIncoming",
      "initialAuthOutgoing",
      "lmPwdHistory",
      "ntPwdHistory",
      "priorValue",
      "supplementalCredentials",
      "trustAuthIncoming",
      "trustAuthOutgoing",
      "unicodePwd",
      NULL
};

/*
  check if the attribute belongs to the RODC filtered attribute set
  Note that attributes that are in the filtered attribute set are the
  ones that _are_ always sent to a RODC
*/
bool dsdb_attr_in_rodc_fas(const struct dsdb_attribute *sa)
{
      /* they never get secret attributes */
      if (is_attr_in_list(secret_attributes, sa->lDAPDisplayName)) {
            return false;
      }

      /* they do get non-secret critical attributes */
      if (sa->schemaFlagsEx & SCHEMA_FLAG_ATTR_IS_CRITICAL) {
            return true;
      }

      /* they do get non-secret attributes marked as being in the FAS  */
      if (sa->searchFlags & SEARCH_FLAG_RODC_ATTRIBUTE) {
            return true;
      }

      /* other attributes are denied */
      return false;
}

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